Part 7 - Sensors (temperature, humidity, motion)

The following guide will show you basic sensors compatible with our project Pi-Home. We are sharing our skecthes which collects information from temperature, humidity (DHT22,DS18B30) and motion sensor (HC-SR501) and communicating via MQTT with OpenHAB.


What we'll need

Part 2 - OpenHAB na Raspberry Pi

Arduino Mega with Ethernet Shield (DIN holder)

Krone LSA terminals

Sensors compatible with Arduino (ie. DHT22 - temp, humidity DS18B30 - floor temp., HC-SR501- motion sensor)

Arduino is a critical element for our open diy smart house system. Due to the large number of applications and compatible hardware, the expansion possibilities are almost unlimited. In addition, the board itself and compatible sensors is relatively cheap. Specifically, we recommend the Original Arduino Mega board with Ethernet 2 shield. It is equipped with up to 50 pins for input/output and can communicate with via MQTT protocol through Ethetnet Shield..

Power and scheme

Pi-Home - chytrý dům a senzory teplot, vlhkosti, pohybu

Tip: The DHT22 sensors sometimes stops sending data. The power must be disconnected to restart communication. We solve this by switching power to one red Krone clamp where all DHT sensors are connected. For the DS18B20, see the wiring diagram here.

Software

In the following section, you will find a sketch and makefile for Arduino with the sample code for the DHT22 and HC-SR501 and DS18B30 sensors on one Arduino. Sketch is a piece of code that is cyclically repeated after uploading to Arduino.

Sample sketch

In this simple sketch, the libraries used are SPI.h, Ethernet2.h, DHT.h, PubSubClient.h, OneWire.h, DallasTemperature.h. In the directory for Arduino, there must be a Makefile (filename) with the contents below. Here is a list of what libraries we will load and where they are located. You can search for libraries on the Internet and download them. In addition, in Makefile there is an unambiguous specification of Arduino, I use a specific name as Arduino reports on the /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Arduinoxxxx path Simply go to folder /dev/serial/by-id/ in SSH on Raspberry and try to plug/disconnect the given Arduino and record what name appears here. Copy the device name to Makefile below. In sketch, there are declared variables (pins) on which individual relay boards are attached and MQTT topic for action, some reconnect parts, etc.

Example "Makefile"

ARDUINO_DIR = /usr/share/arduino
BOARD_TAG    = mega2560
ARDUINO_PORT = /dev/serial/by-id/usb-Arduino__www.arduino.cc__0042_85531303630351119291-if00 (replace with your specific Arduino ID)
USER_LIB_PATH = /usr/share/arduino/libraries
ARDUINO_LIBS = Ethernet2 SPI pubsubclient DHT OneWire DallasTemperature
include /usr/share/arduino/Arduino.mk



Example sketch " Sensors.ino"

/*
 Arduino 4 (PA04)
 
  - connects to an MQTT server
  - publishes "hello world" to the topic "pihome"
  - subscribes to the specific topic pihome/xxx
  - collect and sends a values from PIR, DHT22 and DS18B20 sensors
  - multiple arduino's with same generic sketch can run parallel to each other
  - multiple arduino's need each to have a unique ip-addres, unique mac address and unique MQTT client-ID
  - tested on arduino-mega with W5100 ethernet shield
*/

//------------------------------------------------------------------------------

//MQTT
#include <PubSubClient.h>
#include <Ethernet2.h>

//DHT+DS18B20
#include <DHT.h>
#include <OneWire.h>
#include <DallasTemperature.h>

//Time variables
unsigned long time_now = 0;
unsigned long time_now1 = 0;

//Strings for MQTT
char buff_ST111[10];
char buff_ST121[10];
char buff_ST131[10];
char buff_ST141[10];
char buff_ST151[10];
char buff_ST152[10];
char buff_ST161[10];
char buff_ST201[10];
char buff_ST211[10];
char buff_ST221[10];
char buff_ST231[10];
char buff_ST241[10];

char buff_SH111[10];
char buff_SH121[10];
char buff_SH131[10];
char buff_SH141[10];
char buff_SH151[10];
char buff_SH152[10];
char buff_SH161[10];
char buff_SH201[10];
char buff_SH211[10];
char buff_SH221[10];
char buff_SH231[10];
char buff_SH241[10];



//Variables for floor temperatures
float SF111 =0;
float SF121 =0;
float SF131 =0;
float SF151 =0;
float SF152 =0;
float SF201 =0;
float SF211 =0;
float SF221 =0;
float SF231 =0;
float SF241 =0;

char buff_SF111[10];
char buff_SF121[10];
char buff_SF131[10];
char buff_SF151[10];
char buff_SF152[10];
char buff_SF201[10];
char buff_SF211[10];
char buff_SF221[10];
char buff_SF231[10];
char buff_SF241[10];


// No motion detected at start
int SP111 = 0;
int SP121 = 0;
int SP131 = 0;  
int SP141 = 0;     
int SP151 = 0;
int SP152 = 0;
int SP161 = 0;
int SP201 = 0;
int SP211 = 0;
int SP221 = 0;
int SP231 = 0;
int SP241 = 0;

//Last values for PIR
int lastSP111 = LOW;
int lastSP121 = LOW;
int lastSP131 = LOW;  
int lastSP141 = LOW;     
int lastSP151 = LOW;
int lastSP152 = LOW;
int lastSP161 = LOW;
int lastSP201 = LOW;
int lastSP211 = LOW;
int lastSP221 = LOW;
int lastSP231 = LOW;
int lastSP241 = LOW;

//OneWire (DS1820)
#define ONE_WIRE_BUS 9
OneWire oneWire(ONE_WIRE_BUS);
DallasTemperature sensors(&oneWire);
//**********Change this Dallas sensosrs MAC to your devices**********//
DeviceAddress mac_SF111   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF121   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF131   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF151   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF152   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF201   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF211   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF221   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF231   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };
DeviceAddress mac_SF241   = { 0x28, 0xFF, 0x8D, 0xCB, 0x55, 0x16, 0x3, 0x28 };

//DHT22
#define DHTP111 22
#define DHTP121 24  
#define DHTP131 26    
#define DHTP141 28
#define DHTP151 30
#define DHTP152 32  
#define DHTP161 34    
#define DHTP201 36
#define DHTP211 38
#define DHTP221 40  
#define DHTP231 42    
#define DHTP241 44

#define DHTTYPE DHT22    
     
DHT DHT111(DHTP111, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT121(DHTP121, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT131(DHTP131, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT141(DHTP141, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT151(DHTP151, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT152(DHTP152, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT161(DHTP161, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT201(DHTP201, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT211(DHTP211, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT221(DHTP221, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT231(DHTP231, DHTTYPE);
DHT DHT241(DHTP241, DHTTYPE);


//PIR's pins
int SP111P = 23;    
int SP121P = 25;    
int SP131P = 27;    
int SP141P = 29;    
int SP151P = 31;    
int SP152P = 33;    
int SP161P = 35;
int SP201P = 37;
int SP211P = 39;
int SP221P = 41;
int SP231P = 43;
int SP241P = 45;
 
// Arduino MAC address must be unique for every node in same network
// To make a new unique address change last letter
// Arduino 4
byte mac[]    = { 0xCC, 0xFA, 0x0B, 0xC4, 0x19, 0x01 };  

// Unique static IP address
IPAddress ip(10 ,0 ,0 ,174);

// IP Address of your MQTT broker (OpenHAB server)
byte server[] = { 10, 0, 0, 24 };

// Handle and convert incoming MQTT messages ----------------------------------------
void callback(char* topic, byte* payload, unsigned int length) {
  }   
    
// Initiate instances -----------------------------------
EthernetClient arduino4;
PubSubClient client(server, 1883, callback, arduino4);

void setup(){
   //Only for diagnostics when you need to read DS18B20 mac addresses
   //Serial.begin(115200);
       
       sensors.begin();      
       DHT111.begin();
       DHT121.begin();
       DHT131.begin();
       DHT141.begin();   
       DHT151.begin();
       DHT152.begin();
       DHT161.begin();
       DHT201.begin();   
       DHT211.begin();
       DHT221.begin();
       DHT231.begin();
       DHT241.begin();   
    
  // Setup ethernet connection to MQTT broker
  Ethernet.begin(mac, ip);
  if (client.connect("arduino4", "openhabian", "openhabian")) {
    client.publish("pihome", "Hello world - here Arduino PA04 with IP 10.0.0.174");
  }
     
  pinMode(SP111P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP121P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP131P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP141P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP151P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP152P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP161P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP201P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP211P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP221P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP231P, INPUT);
  pinMode(SP241P, INPUT);    
}


//-----------------------------------------------
long lastReconnectAttempt = 0;

boolean reconnect() {
  if (client.connect("arduino4", "openhabian", "openhabian")) {
    // Once connected, publish an announcement...
    client.publish("pihome","Arduino 4 - reconnected");
  }
  return client.connected();
}
//----------------------------------------------

void loop()
{
  if (!client.connected()) {
    long now = millis();
    if (now - lastReconnectAttempt > 5000) {
      lastReconnectAttempt = now;
      // Attempt to reconnect
      if (reconnect()) {
        lastReconnectAttempt = 0;
      }
    }
  } else {
    // Client connected

    client.loop();
}
//Only for diagnostics when you need to read DS18B20 mac addresses
//if(millis() >= time_now1 + 5000){
//   time_now1 += 5000;
//     //Print all physical addresses for oneWire to Serial port
//     byte i;
//     byte addr[8];
//     int id=0;     
//     
//     Serial.print("test");
//     
//     while(oneWire.search(addr))
//     {
//         Serial.print(id);
//         Serial.print(": ");
//       for( i = 0; i < 8; i++) {      
//         Serial.print(addr[i], HEX);
//         Serial.print(" ");
//         }    
//         Serial.println("");      
//       id++;   
//     }
//     oneWire.reset_search();
//     
//}  

// Collect sensor data every 30 sec
if(millis() >= time_now + 30000){
   time_now += 30000;
     
//============DHT Sensors - Temperature + Humidity============

    
    //DHT sensor - read temp, convert and send via MQTT  

      //Temperature
      float ST111 = DHT111.readTemperature();
      if ((ST111 >=-20) && (ST111<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST111,3, 1, buff_ST111);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st111", buff_ST111);
         }   
      float ST121 = DHT121.readTemperature();
      if ((ST121 >=-20) && (ST121<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST121,3, 1, buff_ST121);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st121", buff_ST121);
         }                 
      float ST131 = DHT131.readTemperature();
      if ((ST131 >=-20) && (ST131<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST131,3, 1, buff_ST131);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st131", buff_ST131);
         }      
      float ST141 = DHT141.readTemperature();
      if ((ST141 >=-20) && (ST141<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST141,3, 1, buff_ST141);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st141", buff_ST141);
         }
      float ST151 = DHT151.readTemperature();
      if ((ST151 >=-20) && (ST151<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST151,3, 1, buff_ST151);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st151", buff_ST151);
         }                 
      float ST161 = DHT161.readTemperature();
      if ((ST161 >=-20) && (ST161<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST161,3, 1, buff_ST161);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st161", buff_ST161);
         }  
      float ST201 = DHT201.readTemperature();
      if ((ST201 >=-20) && (ST201<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST201,3, 1, buff_ST201);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st201", buff_ST201);
         }
      float ST211 = DHT211.readTemperature();
      if ((ST211 >=-20) && (ST211<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST211,3, 1, buff_ST211);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st211", buff_ST211);
         }
      float ST221 = DHT221.readTemperature();
      if ((ST221 >=-20) && (ST221<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST221,3, 1, buff_ST221);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st221", buff_ST221);
         }
      float ST231 = DHT231.readTemperature();
      if ((ST231 >=-20) && (ST231<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST231,3, 1, buff_ST231);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st231", buff_ST231);
         }
      float ST241 = DHT241.readTemperature();
      if ((ST241 >=-20) && (ST241<= 99)){
         dtostrf(ST241,3, 1, buff_ST241);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/temp/st241", buff_ST241);
         }                 
              
    
      //Humidity
      float SH111 = DHT111.readHumidity();
      if ((SH111 >=5) && (SH111<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH111,3, 1, buff_SH111);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh111", buff_SH111);
         }   
      float SH121 = DHT121.readHumidity();
      if ((SH121 >=5) && (SH121<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH121,3, 1, buff_SH121);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh121", buff_SH121);
         }   
      float SH131 = DHT131.readHumidity();
      if ((SH131 >=5) && (SH131<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH131,3, 1, buff_SH131);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh131", buff_SH131);
         }   
      float SH141 = DHT141.readHumidity();
      if ((SH141 >=5) && (SH141<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH141,3, 1, buff_SH141);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh141", buff_SH141);
         }   
      float SH151 = DHT151.readHumidity();
      if ((SH151 >=5) && (SH151<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH151,3, 1, buff_SH151);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh151", buff_SH151);
         }   
      float SH161 = DHT161.readHumidity();
      if ((SH161 >=5) && (SH161<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH161,3, 1, buff_SH161);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh161", buff_SH161);
         }   
      float SH201 = DHT201.readHumidity();
      if ((SH201 >=5) && (SH201<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH201,3, 1, buff_SH201);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh201", buff_SH201);
         }
      float SH211 = DHT211.readHumidity();
      if ((SH211 >=5) && (SH211<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH211,3, 1, buff_SH211);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh211", buff_SH211);
         }   
      float SH221 = DHT221.readHumidity();
      if ((SH221 >=5) && (SH221<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH221,3, 1, buff_SH221);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh221", buff_SH221);
         }   
      float SH231 = DHT231.readHumidity();
      if ((SH231 >=5) && (SH231<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH231,3, 1, buff_SH231);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh231", buff_SH231);
         }   
      float SH241 = DHT241.readHumidity();
      if ((SH241 >=5) && (SH241<= 99)){
         dtostrf(SH241,3, 1, buff_SH241);
         client.publish("pihome/sensor/humidity/sh241", buff_SH241);
         }                   
         
      
                  
//=============DS18B20 sensors temp waterproof==================
      
      sensors.requestTemperatures();
      SF111=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF111);
      SF121=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF121);
      SF131=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF131);
      SF151=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF151);
      SF152=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF152);
      SF201=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF201);
      SF211=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF211);
      SF221=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF221);
      SF231=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF231);
      SF241=sensors.getTempC(mac_SF241);
       
      if ((SF111 >=-10) && (SF111<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF111,3, 1, buff_SF111);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf111", buff_SF111);
      }
      if ((SF121 >=-10) && (SF121<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF121,3, 1, buff_SF121);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf121", buff_SF121);
      }
      if ((SF131 >=-10) && (SF131<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF131,3, 1, buff_SF131);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf131", buff_SF131);
      }
      if ((SF151 >=-10) && (SF151<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF151,3, 1, buff_SF151);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf151", buff_SF151);
      }
      if ((SF152 >=-10) && (SF152<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF152,3, 1, buff_SF152);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf152", buff_SF152);
      }
      if ((SF201 >=-10) && (SF201<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF201,3, 1, buff_SF201);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf201", buff_SF201);
      }
      if ((SF211 >=-10) && (SF211<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF211,3, 1, buff_SF211);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf211", buff_SF211);
      }
      if ((SF221 >=-10) && (SF221<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF221,3, 1, buff_SF221);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf221", buff_SF221);
      }
      if ((SF231 >=-10) && (SF231<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF231,3, 1, buff_SF231);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf231", buff_SF231);
      }
      if ((SF241 >=-10) && (SF241<= 150)){
      dtostrf(SF241,3, 1, buff_SF241);      
      client.publish("pihome/sensor/floortemp/sf241", buff_SF241);
      }
      
}      

//===========================PIR SENSORS====================================
  SP111 = digitalRead(SP111P);
  if (SP111 != lastSP111) {  
   if (SP111 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP111on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP111 = SP111;
 
  SP121 = digitalRead(SP121P);
  if (SP121 != lastSP121) {  
   if (SP121 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP121on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP121 = SP121;   
 
  SP131 = digitalRead(SP131P);
  if (SP131 != lastSP131) {  
   if (SP131 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP131on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP131 = SP131;   
 
  SP141 = digitalRead(SP141P);
  if (SP141 != lastSP141) {  
   if (SP141 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP141on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP141 = SP141;

  SP151 = digitalRead(SP151P);
  if (SP151 != lastSP151) {  
   if (SP151 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP151on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP151 = SP151;
 
  SP152 = digitalRead(SP152P);
  if (SP152 != lastSP152) {  
   if (SP152 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP152on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP152 = SP152;
 
  SP201 = digitalRead(SP201P);
  if (SP201 != lastSP201) {  
   if (SP201 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP201on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP201 = SP201;   
 
  SP201 = digitalRead(SP201P);
  if (SP201 != lastSP201) {  
   if (SP201 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP201on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP211 = SP211;
 
  SP211 = digitalRead(SP211P);
  if (SP211 != lastSP211) {  
   if (SP211 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP211on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP211 = SP211;
 
  SP221 = digitalRead(SP221P);
  if (SP221 != lastSP221) {  
   if (SP221 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP221on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP201 = SP201;
 
  SP231 = digitalRead(SP231P);
  if (SP231 != lastSP231) {  
   if (SP231 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP231on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP231 = SP231;                       
 
  SP241 = digitalRead(SP241P);
  if (SP241 != lastSP241) {  
   if (SP241 == HIGH) {
    client.publish("pihome/sensor/pir","SP241on");           
   }
  }
  lastSP241 = SP241;    
   
delay(500);

 
}

// End of sketch ---------------------------------

OpenHAB

In OpenHAB you should already have sensor items ready according to the tutorial. And that's enough! Try to go to your OpenHAB in the browser and look at the temperatures and humidity in each room. After the sensors are connected, values should appearshere.

Tip: For the advanced using PIR sensors for alarm/light functionality, looks for article Advanced PIR Sensor features in blog.

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The classic disk cloning tool in linux is the dd command. This command creates a image of disk or extracts the contents from the image to disk. The dd tool needs to be handled carefully and you need to understand its use. We'll show a more advanced technique of creating a disc image that contains unallocated space. A classic example is when I have a Raspbian operating system installed on a 250 GB disc, but there's only a tiny boot partition (e.g. sda1) and my own operating system partition (sda2) which together have 15 GB. Instead of saving a 250 GB image, I would like to save only two partitions with 15 GB, so that the image is smaller and can be expanded to 16 or 32 GB flash.

iOS OpenVPN Connection SettingsRating: 
60%

In this article you will find detailed instructions on how to connect to OpenVPN from iOS devices.

Android OpenVPN Connection SettingsRating: 
80%

In this article you will find detailed instructions on how to connect to OpenVPN on Android.

OpenVPN on MikroTik routersRating: 
70%

If you have a smart-home, NAS, etc., it's a good idea to think about safe access to your network when you are not at home. Currently I recommend commercial router like Turris or a cheaper option of MikroTik routers. In the other hand, Raspberry Pi can be used as OpenVPN server too. In this article, we will show how to set up secure access to your home network from the internet using OpenVPN on MikroTik routers.

Video intercom Doorbird in OpenHABRating: 
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Native support for OpenHAB is provided by video intercom by Doorbird company. The solution is powered and connected by a UTP cable and has its own IP address to make it easier for you to install at the gate. OpenHAB is then able to import images from the intercom, visit history, manage gate opening on the button and by the phone, do not disturb feature during night, alarm feature etc. In the instructions we guide you how to use OpenHAB with Doorbird D101.